Antibiotic resistance is one of the most serious health challenges of the 21st century. Microorganisms that produce antibiotic resistance mechanisms are referred to as alarm pathogens. They are largely responsible for nosocomial infections.
From the text you will learn:
- what are the alarm pathogens,
- into which groups the alarm microorganisms are divided,
- what diseases the alarm strains may be responsible for.
At the end of the 20th century, the problem of increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics became very serious. This phenomenon has become a common cause of serious bacterial infections, infections and even deaths.
Alarm pathogen – what does it mean?
Alarm pathogens – also known as alarm strains or alert pathogens – are the microorganisms that have developed antibiotic resistance and chemotherapy resistance mechanisms. They are largely responsible for nosocomial infections.
Alarm microorganisms are classified into three types:
- MDR – these are alarm pathogens resistant to at least three groups of antibiotics,
- XDR – these are alarm strains resistant to at least one preparation from all groups of antibiotics,
- PDR – these are alarm microorganisms resistant to all preparations of all groups of antibiotics.
Alert pathogens – list
The most important alarm pathogens are:
- golden staphylococcus ( Staphylococcus aureus ) – corresponds to e.g. for sepsis, bacterial endocarditis, postoperative wound infections, pneumonia and meningitis,
- enterococci ( Enterococcus ) – they are resistant to many antibiotics, they cause urinary tract infections, wound infections after gynecological surgery, endocarditis, intra-abdominal infections and infections in newborns,
- pneumoniae ( Streptococcus pneumoniae ) – in recent years, it has been resistant to penicillin, it causes not only pneumonia, but also the middle ear, nasal sinuses, meninges and blood,
- gram-negative rods (including Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens ) – colonize, among others, respiratory system and the lower digestive system and stomach.
Alarm pathogens – prophylactic and therapeutic procedures
Infections with alarm pathogens usually occur while a patient is in hospital. Infection prevention consists primarily in adhering to strict hygiene rules – both by medical staff and patients, as well as by visitors. It is necessary for the personnel to use protective gloves, gowns and footwear during each examination or procedure. All surfaces, objects and tools must be disinfected regularly. Of course, it is very important to maintain personal hygiene, including frequent hand washing.
Treatment of an infection caused by an alarm pathogen depends on the strain identified. It may be necessary to fully isolate the patient, use antiseptic cleansers for the body and hair, and use medications to which alarm strains are sensitive.